On this day in 1871 the Paris Commune was formally established in Paris.
The Paris Commune was a revolutionary and socialistic government that briefly ruled Paris from 18 March until 28 May 1871. The killing of two French army generals by soldiers of the Commune’s National Guard and the refusal of the Commune to accept the authority of the French government led to its harsh suppression by the regular French Army in “La Semaine sanglante” (“The Bloody Week”) beginning on 21 May 1871. Debates over the policies and outcome of the Commune had significant influence on the ideas of Karl Marx and Vladimir Lenin.
The Paris Commune inspired other uprisings named or called Communes: in Moscow (December 1905); Budapest (March–July 1919); Canton (December 1927), and, most famously, Saint Petersburg (1917). The Commune was regarded with admiration and awe by later Communist and leftist leaders, including Vladimir Lenin, Joseph Stalin and Mao.
Lenin wrote: “We are only dwarves perched on the shoulders of those giants.” He celebrated by dancing in the snow in Moscow on the day that the Bolshevik government was more than two months old, surpassing the Commune. The ministers and officials of the Bolshevik government were given the title “Commissar” borrowed directly from the “Commissaires” of the Commune. Lenin’s tomb in Moscow was (and still is)) decorated with red banners from the Commune, brought to Moscow for his funeral by French communists.