On this day in 1953 Winston Churchill was knighted by Queen Elizabeth II.
Winston Leonard Spencer Churchill, the British leader who guided Great Britain and the Allies through the crisis of World War II, is knighted by Queen Elizabeth II.
In July 1945, 10 weeks after Germany’s defeat, his Conservative government suffered an electoral loss against Clement Attlee’s Labour Party, and Churchill resigned as prime minister.
He became leader of the opposition and in 1951 was again elected prime minister. Two years later, he was awarded the Nobel Prize in literature for his six-volume historical study of World War II and for his political speeches; Queen Elizabeth II also knighted him.
In 1955, he retired as prime minister but remained in Parliament until 1964, the year before his death.
On this day in 1945 U.S. President Franklin D. Roosevelt died whilst in office; Vice-president Harry Truman was sworn in as the 33rd President.
Roosevelt dominated the American political scene during the twelve years of his presidency, and his policies and ideas continued to have significant impacts for decades afterward. He orchestrated the realignment of voters that created the Fifth Party System. FDR’s New Deal Coalition united labour unions, big city machines, white ethnics, African Americans, and rural white Southerners. His work also influenced the later creation of the United Nations and Bretton Woods. Roosevelt is consistently rated by scholars as one of the top three U.S. Presidents, along with Abraham Lincoln and George Washington.
Roosevelt’s death was met with shock and grief across the U.S. and around the world. His declining health had not been known to the general public. Roosevelt had been president for more than 12 years, longer than any other person, and had led the country through some of its greatest crises to the impending defeat of Nazi Germany and within sight of the defeat of Japan as well.
Less than a month after his death, on May 8, the war in Europe ended. President Harry S. Truman, , dedicated Victory in Europe Day and its celebrations to Roosevelt’s memory, and kept the flags across the U.S. at half-staff for the remainder of the 30-day mourning period, saying that his only wish was “that Franklin D. Roosevelt had lived to witness this day.”
Happy April Fools day! Don’t forget, it only counts until midday and then you’re the fool 😛
On this day in 1933 the recently elected Nazis under Julius Streicher organised a one-day boycott of all Jewish-owned businesses in Germany, ushering in a series of anti-Semitic acts.
In April 1933, after Nazi control of the German state apparatus gave the Gauleiters enormous power, Streicher organised a one-day boycott of Jewish businesses which was used as a dress-rehearsal for other anti-Semitic commercial measures. As he consolidated his hold on power, he came to more or less rule the city of Nuremberg and his Gau Franken. Among the nicknames provided by his enemies were “King of Nuremberg” and the “Beast of Franconia.” Because of his role as Gauleiter of Franconia, he also gained the nickname of Frankenführer.
To protect himself from accountability, Streicher relied on Hitler’s protection. Hitler declared that Der Stürmer was his favourite newspaper, and saw to it that each weekly issue was posted for public reading in special glassed-in display cases known as “Stürmerkasten”. The newspaper reached a peak circulation of 600,000 in 1935.
Streicher later claimed that he was only “indirectly responsible” for passage of the anti-Jewish Nuremberg Laws of 1935, and that he felt slighted because he was not directly consulted.
Generally I try to choose unusual facts because I find sometimes people are just unindated with 20th century facts, but this one is different. It was a time when things were starting to change in Germany. Slowly at first, with acts like this, but it wouldn’t take as long as you would think before things escalated.
This fact is important then because it shows the early days of what the Nazis were willing to try and see what reaction would get from the rest of the world.
On this day in 1916 the battle of Gallipoli concluded with a victory for the Ottoman Empire.
The Battle of Gallipoli was WW1 campaign that took place on the Gallipoli peninsula in the Ottoman Empire between 25 April 1915 and 9 January 1916. The peninsula was part of a northern bank of the Dardanelles that would have provided a sea route to Russia. The British and French launched a naval attack to try and secure it, with the eventual aim of capturing Constantinople. The naval attack was repelled and, after eight months, with many casualties on both sides, the land campaign also failed and the invasion force was withdrawn to Egypt.
The campaign was one of the greatest Ottoman victories during the war and is considered a major Allied failure. In Turkey, it is regarded as a defining moment in the nation’s history: a final surge in the defence of the motherland as the Ottoman Empire crumbled. The campaign formed the basis for the Turkish War of Independence and the founding of the Republic of Turkey, eight years later.